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Compressed Natural Gas - CNG

What is Compressed Natural Gas?

Compressed Natural Gas, also referred to as "CNG" is natural gas (methane or CH4) that has been compressed by a gas compressor, into a high-pressure tank for use in NGV's - "Natural Gas Vehicles." Our markets include;

We provide business development, strategic marketing and sales strategies that produce results, including;

Compressed Natural Gas - CNG

Amine Units  *  Casinghead Gas  *  Compressed Natural Gas  *  Diesel to Natural Gas  *  Diesel to CNG  *  Diesel to LNG

Electric Compression  *  Gas Compressors  *  Gas Dehydration  *  Gas Gathering  *  Gas Liquefaction  *  Gas Processing

Gas Sweetening  *  H2S Removal  *  Heater Treaters  *  Iron Sponge  *  Liquefied Natural Gas  *  Midstream Oil and Gas

Natural Gas Treating  *  Upstream Oil and Gas  *  Pipeline Compression  *  Stranded Gas  *  Vapor Recovery  *   Waste Heat Recovery

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Additional Resources

Biomethane  *  Casinghead Gas  *  CO2 Injection  *  Compressed Natural Gas    *  Diesel to Natural Gas  *  Diesel to CNG

  Diesel to LNG  *  Electric Compression  *  Enhanced Gas Recovery  *  Flare Gas Recovery  *  Fuel Gas Boosters

Fuel Switching  *  Gas Compression  *  Gas Compressor Sales  *  Gas Compressors  *  Gas Gathering  *  Gas Liquefaction

Gas To Power  *  Liquefied Natural Gas  *  LNG Liquefaction  *  Midstream Oil and Gas  *  Pipeline Compression

Renewable Natural Gas  *  Stranded Gas  *  Waste Heat Recovery  *  Wellhead Gas



Converting a Fleet to Natural Gas (or Biomethane),
Usually Requires Answer to the CNG or LNG Debate...

CNG Station or LNG Station?

The Basics:

First of all, CNG & LNG Natural Gas Vehicle Refueling Stations are being installed across USA and by 2020 will total 12,000 - 15,000.

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is produced by cooling/condensing natural gas to a liquid at -260°F.

Liquefied Natural Gas is "vaporized" before injected into the cylinders of the engine (ether spark-ignited or diesel).

Liquefied Natural Gas is preferred long-haul trucking fleets (Class 8) because the energy density of Liquefied Natural Gas is higher than with Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). This means that vehicles fueled by Liquefied Natural Gas have a longer range / driving distance before having to re-fuel compared with CNG.

Class 8 trucks ready to roll with LNG will cost an additional $35,000 to $70,000 (depending on engine, desired range, LNG equiment) more than a diesel tractor. However, with the fuel savings of +/- $1.50 gallon natural gas provides over diesel, the expected ROI is less than 3 years for the average truck.

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Stations

Natural gas is compressed on site to 3000 – 4500 psig
Compressed Natural Gas has 300 times the energy density of natural gas
Available in either “fast fill” (re-fuels as quickly as gasoline fueled vehicles) or “slow fill” (overnight re-fueling)
Best suited for in-town, short range, “return to base” applications with a typical daily range < 300 miles.
Requires a natural gas main extension back to a natural gas pipeline, (or LDC gas main with sufficient volume and pressure) at a cost of approximately $500,000/mile
Electric power service required - may require onsite power plant or have high electric utility bills
If gas compressors are used during peak demand times, an electric demand charge of $10/kW to > $18/kW will be incurred.
Compressed Natural Gas
refueling station Cap Ex $5 - $6 million

ed Natural Gas (LNG) Stations

Liquefied Natural Gas is cooled to -260°F (160° C) at dedicated LNG stations 
Can then be used onsite for refueling or transported to an LNG refueling station
Liquefied Natural Gas has
600 times the energy density of natural gas
LNG has 2.4 times more energy per diesel gallon equivalent (DGE). 
LNG can be refueled at approximately 12 gallons (DGE) per minute.
LNG is the preferred choice for Long Haul (and Return to Base) fleets exceeding 300 miles/day

Liquefied Natural Gas station/facility cost - approximately $2.5 million (half the cost of a CNG refueling station)

Natural Gas Emissions Abatement

Natural Gas as a vehicle fuel provides the following Emissions Reductions versus Gasoline (Energy Information Agency - EIA report 2010) 

Emissions/Pollutant                                    % Reduction (converting to Natural Gas from Gasoline)

Mercury                                                                                                100%

Sulfur Dioxide                                                                                      99.9%

Particulate Matter                                                                                90 - 95% 

Nitrogen Oxides                                                                                   78%

Carbon Monoxide (CO)                                                                       75%

Volatile Organic Compounds                                                            55%

Greenhouse Gas Emissions (CO2)                                                    22.7%

Compressed Natural Gas - CNG

Photo of a natural gas fuel pump.Compressed natural gas is widely available throughout the U.S. from domestically produced natural gas wells and natural gas pipelines and local distribution companies. Natural gas is available to end-users through the utility infrastructure. It is also clean burning and produces significantly fewer harmful emissions than reformulated gasoline or diesel when used in natural gas vehicles. In addition, commercially available medium- and heavy-duty natural gas engines have demonstrated over 90% reductions of carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter and more than 50% reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) relative to commercial diesel engines. Natural gas can either be stored onboard a vehicle as compressed natural gas (CNG) at 3,000 or 3,600 psi or as liquefied natural gas (LNG) at typically 20-150 psi. Natural gas can also be blended with hydrogen.

What Types of Vehicles Run on Compressed Natural Gas?

According to the Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition (NGVC), as of 2005 there are 130,000 light- and heavy-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicles in the United States and 5 million worldwide.

Dedicated natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are designed to run only on natural gas; bi-fuel NGVs have two separate fueling systems that enable the vehicle to use either natural gas or a conventional fuel (gasoline or diesel). In general, dedicated NGVs demonstrate better performance and have lower emissions than bi-fuel vehicles because their engines are optimized to run on natural gas. In addition, the vehicle does not have to carry two types of fuel, thereby increasing cargo capacity and reducing weight.

There are a few light-duty NGVs still available, but if you want a specific type of vehicle, you may want to consider retrofitting a vehicle to an NGV by using an aftermarket conversion system. Heavy-duty NGVs are also available as trucks, buses, and shuttles. Approximately one of every five new transit buses in the United States is powered by natural gas.

As a new twist, tests are being conducted using natural gas vehicles that are fueled with a blend of compressed natural gas and hydrogen.

Vehicle Availability

This model year, auto manufacturers are producing fewer models than in years past. In order to get more vehicle options, you may choose to retrofit your own vehicle.

Fuel Availability

CNG fueling stations are located in most major cities and in many rural areas. Public LNG stations are limited and used mostly by fleets and heavy-duty trucks. LNG is available through suppliers of cryogenic liquids.

Vehicle Safety

Natural gas vehicles are just as safe as today's conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles. They use pressurized tanks, which have been designed to withstand severe impact, high external temperatures, and environmental exposure.

Adequate training is required to operate and maintain natural gas vehicles because they are different than gasoline or diesel vehicles. Training and certification of service technicians is required.

Vehicle Costs

In general, a natural gas vehicle can be less expensive to operate than a comparable conventionally fueled vehicle depending on natural gas prices. Natural gas can cost less than gasoline and diesel (per energy equivalent gallon); however, local utility rates can vary.

Purchase prices for natural gas vehicles are somewhat higher than for similar conventional vehicles. The auto manufacturers' typical price premium for a light-duty CNG vehicle can be $1,500 to $6,000, and for heavy-duty trucks and buses it is in the range of $30,000 to $50,000. Federal and other incentives can help defray some of the increase in vehicle acquisition costs. In addition, fleets may need to purchase service and diagnostic equipment if access to commercial CNG/LNG vehicle maintenance facilities is not available.

Retrofitting a conventional vehicle so it can run on CNG may cost $2,000 to $4,000 per vehicle.

Maintenance Considerations

High-pressure tanks that hold CNG require periodic inspection and certification by a licensed inspector.

Fleets doing on-site maintenance may need to upgrade their facilities to accommodate NGVs. Costs for upgrading maintenance facilities will depend on the number of modifications required.

Some natural gas vehicle manufacturers now recommend oil changes at intervals twice as long as similar gasoline or diesel models (10,000-12,000 miles). Refer to the vehicle owner's manual or consult the manufacturer to determine proper maintenance intervals.



What is Diesel to CNG?

Diesel to CNG is a type of "fuel switching" wherein one fuel is replaced with another, typically for economic reasons (savings) or for emissions abatement or a combination of these. 

Thousands of Class 8 tractors and fleets have made the switch from diesel to LNG over the past several years. The owners/operators of these vehicles are saving approximately $1.50/gallon (or more) with LNG and in addition, their engines run much cleaner and can double the frequency of oil changes due to LNG (natural gas) being a clean fuel.

What is Diesel to LNG?

Diesel to LNG is a type of "fuel switching" wherein one fuel is replaced with another, typically for economic reasons (savings) or for emissions abatement or a combination of these. 

Thousands of Class 8 tractors and fleets have made the switch from diesel to LNG over the past several years. The owners/operators of these vehicles are saving approximately $1.50/gallon (or more) with LNG and in addition, their engines run much cleaner and can double the frequency of oil changes due to LNG (natural gas) being a clean fuel.

What is
Fuel Switching?

Fuel Switching is oftentimes a highly-effective method of reducing energy expenses and environmental emissions by switching from one type of fuel to another.

Coal To Natural Gas, Compressed Natural Gas, Diesel to Natural Gas, Diesel to CNG, Diesel to LNG and Liquefied Natural Gas are the fastest-growing types of Fuel Switching in the transportation industry due to the savings it provides the companies that own fleets of cars, trucks and tractor-trailers. 

Even when you consider the change-outs of diesel engines to natural gas engines, the fuel savings of natural gas provides a very quick return on investment.

In addition to fleet owners of there are a large number of other Fuel Switching opportunities for customers in the commercial, industrial and utility industries. 

Fuel Switching to renewable fuels is becoming a rapidly-growing and wide-spread solution for helping companies transition from fossil fuels and reduce their potential environmental liabilities. Particularly with "greenhouse gas reporting" regulations eminent.  

Replacement renewable fuels for fossil fuels include the following renewable fuels;


What is Gas Liquefaction?

Gas Liquefaction is the process in which natural gas is converted from the gaseous to the liquid phase. At the end of the Gas Liquefaction process, the product is referred to as "Liquefied Natural Gas" or "LNG." Gas Liquefaction is also called "Natural Gas To Liquid."


Gas Liquefaction Plant
Gas Liquefaction plant

What is Liquefied Natural Gas?

Liquefied Natural Gas, or LNG, is natural gas (methane or CH4) that is cooled to - 260 degrees F. (below zero). At this temperature, natural gas turns into a liquid (liquefied natural gas) making it very economical to ship large amounts of energy in a relatively small space.

When natural gas has been liquefied, the natural gas that was once a "gas" now takes up to 600 times LESS as a liquid, as when it was in its previous gas state.

Because Liquefied Natural Gas is still natural gas, its carbon emissions as well much lower as compared to other fossil fuels, such as coal, diesel or oil.

Liquefied Natural Gas is colorless, odorless, colorless, non-corrosive and non-toxic. It weighs less than half the equivalent amount that water does.

Liquefied Natural Gas achieves a higher reduction in volume than compressed natural gas (CNG) so that the energy density of Liquefied Natural Gas is 2.4 times that of compressed natural gas or 60% of that of diesel fuel. This makes Liquefied Natural Gas a highly cost-effective fuel to transport over long distances where pipelines do not exist. Cryogenic tanks and LNG ships transport the LNG around the world on oceans and cryogenic tanks transport the LNG on trains and 18-wheelers. Think of cryogenic tanks like an insulated thermos bottle as the LNG must be kept at - 260 degrees F. (below zero) to remain in its liquid state.

Liquefied Natural Gas is used as any fuel may be used, as well as transporting natural gas to markets, where it is then re-gasified and distributed in natural gas pipelines.

What is LNG Liquefaction?

LNG Liquefaction is a process that refrigerates Natural Gas until it is condensed into a liquid at close to atmospheric pressure (maximum transport pressure set at around 25 kPa/3.6 psi) by the natural gas to approximately −162 °C (−260 °F) which reduces its volume to 1/600th or its original volume for ease of transportation.

Liquefied Natural Gas or simply "LNG" is natural gas which is primarily methane or CH4 that has been liquefied to reduce its volume. As previously stated, LNG is colorless, odorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. LNG hazards include flammability, freezing and asphyxia.

The LNG Liquefaction takes place at an LNG terminal, typically located at an ocean port where one or more natural gas pipelines deliver natural gas. The natural gas has had the contaminants removed by gas processing and purification, which removes, condensates such as water, dust, helium, mud, oil, CO2, H2S and mercury. The natural gas is then cooled down in stages until it is finally liquefied at -160 degrees C. The Liquefied Natural Gas is stored in cryogenic storage tanks and loaded onto an LNG ship and shipped.


Compressed Natural Gas - CNG

Biomethane  *  CNG Compressors  *  Diesel to CNG  *  Diesel to Natural Gas  *  Diesel to LNG 

Fuel Switching
  *  Gas Liquefaction 
*  Landfill Gas to Energy  *  Liquefied Natural Gas


“spending hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of billions of dollars every year for oil, much of it from the Middle East, is just about the single stupidest thing that modern society could possibly do.  It’s very difficult to think of anything more idiotic than that.” 
~ R. James Woolsey, Jr., former Director of the CIA

Price of Addiction
to Foreign Oil

According to R. James Woolsey, for Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, “The basic insight is to realize that global warming, the geopolitics of oil, and warfare in the Persian Gulf are not separate problems — they are aspects of a single problem, the West’s dependence on oil.”  



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Fuel Savings of > $1.50/gallon
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CNG Compressors  *  CNG Conversions  *  Diesel to CNG  *  Diesel to Gas 

Diesel to Natural Gas  Electric Compression  *  Emissions Abatement 

Fleet Conversions to CNG & LNG  *  Fuel Switching  Gas Compressors

Gas Compression  Plug In Electric Vehicles

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Compressed Natural Gas - CNG


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